hope college General Education    
hope college > academic departments > gen ed        

 
Wise Course Selection <
Purposes of General Education <
Virtues of Public Discourse <
Interdisciplinary Learning <
Off Campus Programs <
Who Should I Ask About.. <
Links

<

News <
<
<
<
<
<
<
 

Cultural Heritage—Eight Credits

The dominant culture of the United States has its roots in the history and development of “Western culture” and its interplay with “non-Western” societies. For good or for ill, Western culture is now having an increasingly global impact.

Hope students, whether or not they see the dominant culture of the U.S. as “home turf,” benefit from knowing and critically reflecting upon the cultural heritage of Western civilization.

Whatever path a student chooses in meeting this requirement will provide an introduction to some of the central events, questions and concerns that have shaped Western culture. Students will gain an understanding of historical movements, as well as significant literary and philosophical texts. Through discussion and writing, students are encouraged to develop an informed evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the Western cultural legacy which will contribute greater self-understanding.

The overall idea of the Cultural Heritage requirement is to give you an introduction to three humanities disciplines (literature, history, philosophy) through just two courses, and in a way that includes both the ancient world (CH1) and the modern world (CH2).

The Cultural Heritage requirement may be fulfilled by taking IDS 171 and IDS 172, or by taking one of these interdisciplinary courses in combination with a Cultural Heritage course from English, History, or Philosophy. During fall 2008 there is also one interdisciplinary course that covers two disciplines: IDS 174, a CH2 course that includes only literature and history, can fulfill the requirement along with a CH1 course that includes philosophy (IDS 171, 175, or 177 or Philosophy 230).

Students may also fulfill the requirement with a combination of three single-discipline courses, one each from English, Philosophy, and History, two of which must be 4-credit CH1 and CH2 courses; the third may be a 4- or 2-credit course from the third discipline. For a complete list of options for fulfilling this requirement, see the college catalog under “Degree Program” (pp. 109-110). If you have questions, contact Prof. Curtis Gruenler, Director of Cultural Heritage.

Fall Semester 2014

IDS Courses Covering Literature, History, and Philosophy

IDS 171 01: Cultural Heritage I
Families, Nations, and Tragedy
Bassett, Gregory MWF 9:30 AM 10:20 AM

We are individuals, members of families, citizens of a country, and part of the world. What are the relationships between these aspects of our identities? Are families small societies, with their own cultures and laws? Are countries large families, held together by the affections of extended kinship? Do the duties we have to those we love conflict with the duties we have to our country? Do the duties we have to our country conflict with the duties we have to those in other countries? If they do, is there any way to decide how to act, or are we doomed to conflict and tragedy? These are questions we still struggle with today, but we can look to the past for some help in answering them. In this class, we will look at how ancient Greeks attempted to understand the relationship between families and broader society, by examining the history, drama, and philosophy of the period.

IDS 171 02: Cultural Heritage I
Jews, Pagans, and Christians: the Ancient and Medieval Worlds Reconsidered
Tseng, Gloria MWF 11:00 AM 11:50 AM

From the heyday of the Roman Empire, when they were a small and vulnerable minority, to the “Christian centuries,” when the papacy was strong enough to rival kings, Christians lived and died in the historical and cultural contexts of their day. They were shaped and informed by their worlds even as they challenged the status quo. As they interacted with the worlds around them, they were in dialog with other cultural and religious traditions. This course will take us on a brief journey of the ancient and medieval worlds and introduce us to their questions and concerns. Emphasis will be given to meditative reading (i.e., texts that call for slow reading and contemplation), and we will consider what they have to say to us in our day in regard to spirituality and other issues of life.

IDS 171 03: Cultural Heritage I
Citizenship and the Good Life
Cox, John MWF 11:00 AM 11:50 AM
"Citizenship and the Good Life" surveys history, literature, and philosophy from the ancient Greeks to the early Renaissance with two ideas as the focus: What does it mean to be a citizen? What does it mean to live a good life? Beginning with Greek tragedy, the course includes readings from Herodotus, Thucydides, Aeschylus, Plato, Aristotle, Lucretius, Epictetus, Virgil, Luke's Gospel, Augustine, Aquinas, Dante, and Thomas More.

IDS 171 04: Cultural Heritage I
Real Life and the Good Life from Classical Times to Christian
LaPorte, Joseph MW 2:00 PM 3:20 PM

We all want what’s good for ourselves and others. But how do we do well in life, “get it”—what it’s all about? And in what ways have different people throughout history seen that—or not? In this course, we will be keeping our eyes on these sorts of questions, especially as they relate to sex and gender, power and slavery, and character development. The readings for this course are in large part classics, texts that have through the ages been regarded as masterpieces that transcend their own times. We will be looking at literature, philosophy, and history as well as some theology; we will be covering these disciplines as they apply to classical Greece and Rome, and then as they apply to the newly forming Christian Church which burgeons into a great religion surviving into the middle ages and the Renaissance—the church survives beyond that, of course, but we stop at the Renaissance in this course. Because the course proceeds chronologically, we can see in a powerful way how later authors build on earlier ones. Something that particularly excites me about the course is the way it illustrates how Christianity, which became the dominant religion in the West, was born in a classical world and how Christians came to incorporate classical learning and culture from ancient Greece and Rome.

IDS 171 05: Cultural Heritage I
Real Life and the Good Life from Classical Times to Christian
LaPorte, Joseph MW 3:30 PM 4:50 PM

We all want what’s good for ourselves and others. But how do we do well in life, “get it”—what it’s all about? And in what ways have different people throughout history seen that—or not? In this course, we will be keeping our eyes on these sorts of questions, especially as they relate to sex and gender, power and slavery, and character development. The readings for this course are in large part classics, texts that have through the ages been regarded as masterpieces that transcend their own times. We will be looking at literature, philosophy, and history as well as some theology; we will be covering these disciplines as they apply to classical Greece and Rome, and then as they apply to the newly forming Christian Church which burgeons into a great religion surviving into the middle ages and the Renaissance—the church survives beyond that, of course, but we stop at the Renaissance in this course. Because the course proceeds chronologically, we can see in a powerful way how later authors build on earlier ones. Something that particularly excites me about the course is the way it illustrates how Christianity, which became the dominant religion in the West, was born in a classical world and how Christians came to incorporate classical learning and culture from ancient Greece and Rome.

IDS 171 06: Cultural Heritage I
Freedom, Justice, and the Good Life
Portfleet, Dianne TR 9:30 AM 10:50 AM

This course will focus on 4 specific time periods in history: 5th-century B.C. Greece, 1st-century Rome, beginnings of Islam and its expansion, and Dante's Florence. In each of the historical, philosophical and literary readings, we will be focusing on the themes of freedom, justice and the good life. The last half of the semester will be spent reading the Dante’s complete Divine Comedy and expanding on all of the ideas introduced in the earlier writings.

IDS 171 07: Cultural Heritage I
Title TBD
Werner, Courtney TR 12:00 PM 1:20 PM

This course focuses on students’ cultural heritage via Ancient Greece and Rome through Europe’s modern period with a focus on literature, history, and philosophy. Cultural heritage is explored through intellectual virtue, civil discourse, and silenced voices. The course examines minority positions--especially that of women--within historic Western notions of intellectual virtue and focuses on questions such as: how has civil discourse in the US been shaped by norms of civil discourse in Ancient Greece and Rome? how are ideas about intellectual virtue tied to rhetoric and philosophy? what is the relationship between these ideas and power hierarchies? do civil virtues remain consistent over time? what place have minorities occupied in historic traditions of civil discourse? Students will explore these questions using primary texts and artifacts and will consider non-Western traditions for comparison, such as Ancient Eastern and Middle Eastern rhetoric and philosophy.

IDS 171 08: Cultural Heritage I
Jews, Pagans, and Christians: the Ancient and Medieval Worlds Reconsidered
Tseng, Gloria MWF 1:00 PM 1:50 PM

From the heyday of the Roman Empire, when they were a small and vulnerable minority, to the “Christian centuries,” when the papacy was strong enough to rival kings, Christians lived and died in the historical and cultural contexts of their day. They were shaped and informed by their worlds even as they challenged the status quo. As they interacted with the worlds around them, they were in dialog with other cultural and religious traditions. This course will take us on a brief journey of the ancient and medieval worlds and introduce us to their questions and concerns. Emphasis will be given to meditative reading (i.e., texts that call for slow reading and contemplation), and we will consider what they have to say to us in our day in regard to spirituality and other issues of life.

IDS 171 09: Cultural Heritage I
Freedom, Justice, and the Good Life
Portfleet, Dianne TR 1:30 AM 2:50 AM

This course will focus on 4 specific time periods in history: 5th-century B.C. Greece, 1st-century Rome, beginnings of Islam and its expansion, and Dante's Florence. In each of the historical, philosophical and literary readings, we will be focusing on the themes of freedom, justice and the good life. The last half of the semester will be spent reading the Dante’s complete Divine Comedy and expanding on all of the ideas introduced in the earlier writings.

IDS 172 01: Cultural Heritage II
From Reformation to Revolution
Gibbs, Janis MWF 11:00 AM 11:50 AM

The theme of this interdisciplinary humanities course is “From Reformation to Revolution.” The dynamic which will guide our investigation is change. Change is an important dynamic in human societies. At different times in history, men and women have developed ideas, technologies and movements which have challenged prevailing authorities, shifted people’s understanding of the truth, and changed the world. Changes can be minor, or they can be radical. They can improve existing institutions, or replace them entirely. We sometimes call changes “reforms.” If the changes are profound enough, we call them “revolutions.” How do people foster change? How do they react to calls for reform? What transforms reformation into revolution? What leads people to develop revolutionary changes, or to adopt them? How and why do other people resist reform or revolution? How can people transform the extraordinary energy of revolutionary movements into the energy required to build and maintain new institutions? Do we use the term “revolution” too easily? What is a “reform”? When does a change become revolutionary?

We will study a series of changes between the late fifteenth century (i.e. late 1400s C.E. ) and the early 19th century (1800s C.E. ). Major topics include the Protestant and Catholic Reformations, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. While we will not consider all of the important, or even all of the revolutionary, changes that have occurred during this period, we will be looking at a variety of kinds of change: religious, political, intellectual, technological, social—and of course, combinations of these kinds of change, since none of them exist alone.

This course is also an introduction to three disciplines within the humanities—history, philosophy, and literature—and to the connections and distinctions between them. We will use a variety of sources to discuss reformations, revolutions, and the people who made them, joined them, resisted them, and were swept up by them. Literature, philosophy and history give us different, though related, ways of understanding the process and the experience of reform and revolution in human history.

IDS 172 02: Cultural Heritage II
Enlightenment, Revolution, and Romanticism
Perovich, Anthony MWF 1:00 PM 1:50 PM

While the French Revolution was one of the major events of modern history, the buildup to it and the fallout from it are of equal interest, and all three will be examined in this course. This section of IDS 172 is a “three-discipline” interdisciplinary course: it will focus on European history, literature, and philosophy from the middle of the seventeenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century. Special attention will be paid to the intellectual movement known as “the Enlightenment,” to the Revolution itself and the Napoleonic period that ensued, and to the Romantic movement that sprang up alongside the Revolution and continued beyond it. Figures to be read or studied will include Voltaire, Kant, Goethe, Napoleon, and Hegel. The connections of the main themes of this course to other cultural and historical developments, such as the Scientific Revolution, the American Revolution, and the rise of nationalism, will also be explored.

IDS 172 03: Cultural Heritage II
Enlightenment, Revolution, and Romanticism
Perovich, Anthony MWF 2:00 PM 2:50 PM

While the French Revolution was one of the major events of modern history, the buildup to it and the fallout from it are of equal interest, and all three will be examined in this course. This section of IDS 172 is a “three-discipline” interdisciplinary course: it will focus on European history, literature, and philosophy from the middle of the seventeenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century. Special attention will be paid to the intellectual movement known as “the Enlightenment,” to the Revolution itself and the Napoleonic period that ensued, and to the Romantic movement that sprang up alongside the Revolution and continued beyond it. Figures to be read or studied will include Voltaire, Kant, Goethe, Napoleon, and Hegel. The connections of the main themes of this course to other cultural and historical developments, such as the Scientific Revolution, the American Revolution, and the rise of nationalism, will also be explored.

IDS 172 04: Cultural Heritage II
Authority and the Individual
Lunderberg, Marla TR 12:00 PM 1:20 PM

How do you define yourself as an individual? And how do you relate to the many different authorities in your life? When someone (parent, spiritual leader, government authority or dorm resident director) lays down a rule, do you respond positively? Break it as a matter of principle? Toe the line but grumble? Do you react differently to different kinds of authority? When two kinds of authority conflict, how do you respond?

In this course, we will examine how others have seen their relationships to the many authorities in their lives. We'll cover a great range of time and a great variety of kinds of thinking, from Luther's distinctions between spiritual and secular authorities, to Shakespeare's exploring the power held by colonial authorities, to Confucian emphasis on family ties. We'll cover texts from the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, from literature, history, and philosophy, from Western and Asian traditions. We will consider texts as they relate to their particular moment in history and as they relate to each other.

Perhaps you'll see yourself in some of these thinkers. Perhaps you won't. Yet whether you agree or disagree with them, digesting what they have said can allow you to examine closely what you think.

IDS 172 05: Cultural Heritage II
Perspectives on Science
Hagood, Jonathan MWF 9:30 AM 10:20 AM

What is science? How have society and culture shaped science? How has science in turn shaped society and culture? This course examines a variety of perspectives on these questions from the sixteenth century to the present day. Students will read leading philosophers’ texts on the nature of science, examine the lives and contributions of key figures in the history of science, and explore how the evolution of detective fiction through works by Voltaire, Edgar Allan Poe, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Raymond Chandler, and others helps us better to understand changing perspectives on science and the scientific method. To this end, students will write their own detective stories – highlighting the scientific aspects of the genre, the detective, and the philosophical methods for solving a mystery.

IDS 172 06: Cultural Heritage II
Perspectives on Science
Hagood, Jonathan MWF 11:00 AM 11:50 AM

What is science? How have society and culture shaped science? How has science in turn shaped society and culture? This course examines a variety of perspectives on these questions from the sixteenth century to the present day. Students will read leading philosophers’ texts on the nature of science, examine the lives and contributions of key figures in the history of science, and explore how the evolution of detective fiction through works by Voltaire, Edgar Allan Poe, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Raymond Chandler, and others helps us better to understand changing perspectives on science and the scientific method. To this end, students will write their own detective stories – highlighting the scientific aspects of the genre, the detective, and the philosophical methods for solving a mystery.

IDS 172 07: Cultural Heritage II
Good, Bad, and Evil
Petit, Jeanne MWF 2:00 PM 2:50 PM

What makes a movement, an idea or a person good? How can we judge whether a political system or a poem is bad? Is there such a thing as evil, and how do we know it when we see it? These questions have been debated for centuries in Western societies, and in the process, new systems of thinking and understanding have emerged. This class will use the lenses of history, literature and philosophy to explore the ways men and women in the Western world have shaped the meanings of good, bad and evil. We will also consider how these debates from the past influence on the ways those of us in the 21st century think about religion, politics, economics, gender, morality, war and our very selves.

IDS Courses: Literature and History

IDS 174 01: Cultural Heritage II: Lit/Hist
Indigenous: Native American Literature and History in (What Came to Be Called) North America
Montano, Jesus MWF 12:00 PM 12:50 PM

Chronologically our course begins at the height of the Aztec Empire and proceeds through the colonial period, the ages of nation building and manifest destiny, and finally ends in the Now. In order to avoid the pitfalls of a straight linear chronology, however, our route will begin in modern Mexico with the Zapatista and other indigenous movements. We will proceed back into history, going through the nationalism and colonial periods all the way back to the eve of the Conquest in Mexico. At this point we will venture across the Border, and while staying in the past, we will explore Native American creation stories and the various ways in which people made sense of their relationships to each other, to the world, and to the divine. We will continue on this road, traveling from the early period of contact with Europeans toward the US colonial period and then to the era of expansion and Manifest Destiny. Our course will end by examining modern Native American authors who look back toward the past as a way of discussing modern US issues. The goal of our travels is to understand our cultural inheritance, sometimes through the lens of Western European thought and culture but most time in juxtaposition to it, through the disciplines of history and literature. We will look carefully at governmental treaties and historical events, as well as the thoughts and ideas governing both inter-cultural and intra-cultural dialogue.

IDS Courses: Literature and Philosophy

IDS 175 01: Cultural Heritage I: Lit/Phil
Homer's Iliad and Odyssey
Allis, James TR 12:00 PM 1:20 PM

With Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, we are presented with two of the great metaphors of life, a battle and a journey. In this class, we will read, in translation, these two epic poems which are sometimes said to have “fed” the Western imagination more than any other works in the last 2700 years.

We will begin the course reading the Iliad. The poem has sometimes been described as the greatest war story of all time. Plutarch tells us that Aristotle's pupil Alexander kept the book "with his dagger under his pillow, declaring that he esteemed it a perfect portable treasure of all military virtue and knowledge." Yet while military commanders throughout history have studied this poem of the Trojan War to avoid Agamemnon's errors and to follow Odysseus' tactics, the poem is vastly more than a "war story." With extraordinary rhythms of language and unparalleled metaphors, Homer vividly gives us a “poem of the human condition.” We will explore Achilles’ shame, rage, and withdrawal from human interactions, a culture of honor and glory, the human confrontation with mortality, the relationships between gods and humans, the meaning of courage, the strength of fate and the possibilities for human freedom, the desire for justice and vengeance, the need to keep fighting in the face of certain defeat, acts of friendship, loyalty, and generosity, the heroism of Hector, the complexity and sorrows of war along with the longings for tranquility and peace, the tragedy of Troy, the sorrow of loss, Achilles’ return to battle, the losing and regaining of humanity.

Then we will turn to the story of Odysseus’ ten year journey home from the Trojan War in the Odyssey. Here, too, we find much more than a “story of a journey,” though part of the excitement of the work is the wonderful presentation of Odysseus’ adventures and trials. We’ll investigate the meaning of home and the longing for home, the importance of hospitality in an often inhospitable world, the temptation to find release in death and the strength to resist that temptation, relations between women and men, husbands and wives, parents and children, again the relations between gods and humans and the role of fate, the significance of truth, lies, and deception in pursuing one’s goals, the reunion of Odysseus and Penelope and Odysseus’ killing of the suitors to regain his home. Throughout the story, we will see Odysseus’ continuing struggles to move ultimately from chaos to order.

All are welcome; no background in Greek language or culture is presupposed. The only prerequisite is a certain willingness to explore how it is that in a language we no longer know exactly how to pronounce, this poet Homer, from a world of which we have but the vaguest ideas, incredibly and wonderfully found a way to give us these stories of our human lives, containing, as one recent commentator has put it, “every secret happiness and every hidden sin."

Philosophy Courses

Philosophy 230: Ancient Philosophy
Mulder, Jack MWF 2:00 PM 2:50 PM

Suppose God knew, nearly fifteen years ago, that I was going to ask my wife to marry me long before I actually did. Is my decision still free? This raises a lot of important questions that we’ll consider in this class. First, it raises a question about what I am. How am I related to my decisions, and how am I related to the “stuff,” the matter, that composes my body? How is my body related to my soul? For Socrates, the answer seems to be that “I” am quite different from my body. For Aristotle, I am very closely related to my body. How does the resurrection of the dead in Christianity (and Augustine and Aquinas) affect that question? Second, our initial question raises other questions about who or what God is, and whether God’s existence and knowledge impacts my ability to choose things freely. Must I be able to choose otherwise if I am really free? What about the angels in heaven, who cannot choose evil? How does one’s moral virtue affect one’s freedom? Are we less or more free if we can’t do evil? We’ll hear from Aristotle, Augustine, Anselm, and Aquinas about these kinds of questions. A final set of questions that we might ask about our initial scenario has to do with the nature of love. What is it? Is love a free and intelligent endeavor, or does it simply overpower us at points? Is that a good or a bad thing? What does desire in love, and in sex (the ancients were not prudes), have to do with freedom? What do we love when we love a person? Is it a set of qualities, or is it, in some strange way, a person behind those qualities? Should we love some people more than others? Why? We’ll hear from Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, and others on these questions. Their thoughts have been extremely influential and they still shape the way we think about nearly everything.

PHIL 232: Modern Philosophy
Ethics and the Rise of Modern Science
Allis, James MWF 11:00 AM 11:50 AM

One of the central characteristics of the modern age in the West has been the rise of science and technology. Developments in science and technology have transformed the material conditions of life and increased the opportunities and possibilities for many. Today science and technology play hugely influential roles in contemporary society and world affairs.

In this course, we will explore such questions as: How did modern science begin? What is distinctive about modern scientific knowledge, and how might its approaches to the natural world and human reason contribute to its extraordinary success? How do the efforts of science and technology influence our understanding of ourselves as humans, our relations to the physical world, and our possible relation to God?

Yet even as the successes of science and technology continue to amaze us and shape our ways of living, ethical questions about the work of science begin to arise. For example, science and technology give us considerable power over the natural world, but how are we going to use that power (e.g., nuclear energy and genetic engineering)? How might we begin to figure out “good” and “not-so-good” uses of that power? Science and technology may help us realize lives of greater convenience and comfort (e.g., an expanding number of “gadgets), but do science and technology help us to achieve lives that are genuinely “better” and “happier”? Science and technology provide us with opportunities that previous generations did not have, but are we truly “freer” in any meaningful way? While science and technology continue to give us incredible insights into the workings of human beings and our world (e.g., evolutionary theory and the neurosciences), at the same time more questions emerge about our human “place” and “purpose” in the world and how we might try to live our lives in this world.

History Courses

HIST 130 01 Cultural Heritage I
Introduction to Ancient Civilization
Bell, Albert TR 1:30 PM 2:50 PM

Focused on significant developments in history from Greek origins through the Renaissance. Designed to introduce the discipline of history. Can be used to fulfill part of the cultural heritage requirement, and flagged for global learning international.

HIST 130 02 Cultural Heritage I
Introduction to Ancient Civilization
Bell, Albert T 6:30 PM 9:20 PM

Focused on significant developments in history from Greek origins through the Renaissance. Designed to introduce the discipline of history. Can be used to fulfill part of the cultural heritage requirement, and flagged for global learning international.

HIST 131 01 Cultural Heritage II
Introduction to Modern European History
Staff, TBA TR 9:30 AM 10:50 AM

The course will focus on significant developments in modern European history from the Renaissance to our own time. It is designed to introduce the student to the discipline of history and can be sued to fulfill part of the cultural heritage requirement.

HIST 207 01 Cultural Heritage I
World Civilization I
Janes, Lauren MWF 9:30 AM 10:20 AM

This introductory world history course surveys developments in human civilization in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe from prehistory until about 1500. It employs comparative methods to investigate cultures and societies that developed in different parts of the world, and it examines the ways in which world societies have interacted in the past. It fulfills the Cultural Heritage I requirement and is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.

HIST 207 02 Cultural Heritage I
World Civilization II
Janes, Lauren MWF 11:00 AM 11:50 AM

This introductory world history course surveys developments in human civilization in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe from prehistory until about 1500. It employs comparative methods to investigate cultures and societies that developed in different parts of the world, and it examines the ways in which world societies have interacted in the past. It fulfills the Cultural Heritage I requirement and is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.

English Courses

ENGL 231 01: Literature Western World I
Schoon-Tanis, Kathy MW 2:00 PM 3:20 PM

The objectives of this version of World Lit I are: to read, with care, several of the many important texts of the ancient, medieval, and renaissance western world; to discover and appreciate aspects of the developing literary art; and to understand how such texts reflect the ideas and values of their eras and likewise have contributed to our own. The course method will encourage connecting personally with the readings and contributing personal observations during class, which in turn will blend with informal lecture and some video viewing. Students, therefore, should expect to prepare fully for, and participate frequently during, class—at which attendance will be required. As one would expect, students do a fair amount of reading, often of rather difficult material, as well as a fair amount of explorational and formal writing.

This course fulfills the Cultural Heritage I requirement. 4 credit hours.

ENGL 232.01: Literature Western World II
Verduin, Kathleen MWF 9:30 AM 10:20 AM

This is a course in the classics of European literature from approximately 1600 up to (well, almost) the present. Alternating narrative and drama (and throwing in some representative poems along the way), we will consider the seventeenth century’s response to a racial reorganization of Christianity; the Enlightenment’s allegiance to rationality and satire; the Romantic era’s return to emotion and the fantastic; Realism’s portrayal of marriage and money; the fascination with myth and the primitive in the early twentieth century; the Existentialist writings highly popular at mid-century and in postwar academia; and, maybe, the rise of the art film as literature’s stepchild. Although it is of course impossible to do justice to four hundred years of literary production in a mere four months, we will endeavor to gain some continuity by tracing Joseph Campbell’s mighty archetype of the Hero’s Journey.

Texts (available as individual paperbacks) will include Bunyan, Pilgrim’s Progress; Racine, Phaedra; Voltaire, Candide; Sheridan, The School for Scandal; Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner; Goethe, Faust, Part I; Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych; Ibsen, A Doll’s House; Hesse, Demian; works by Sartre and other Existentialists, still to be selected; and probably a film or two by the Swedish director Ingmar Bergman. Three tests, three critical essays, weekly reaction papers. This course substitutes for IDS 172 and helps meet the second ("modern") half of the cultural heritage requirement.