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Publications

Albertus C. Van Raalte: Dutch Leader and American Patriot. Holland, Michigan: Hope College, 1997; reprint, 2000. (Jeanne M. Jacobson, Elton J. Bruins, and Larry J. Wagenaar)

"By the Sweat of our Brow: Economic Aspects of the Dutch Immigration to Michigan." In For Food and Faith: Dutch Immigration to Western Michigan, 1846-1960, ed. Robert P. Swierenga, 1-29. The Holland Museum Sesquicentennial Lectures. Holland, Michigan: Holland Museum, 2000. (Robert P. Swierenga)

Campus Alive: A Walking Tour of Hope College. Elton J. Bruins and Larry J. Wagenaar. Holland, Michigan: Hope College, 1999. (Elton J. Bruins)

OGGEL HOUSE

Oggel House was built by Philip Phelps in 1860 during his tenure as principal of the Holland Academy for a teacher in the Academy, Rev. Giles Vandewall. The home was occupied in 1864 by Rev. Peter J. Oggel, the first Bible professor at Hope College and a son-in-law of Dr. and Mrs. Van Raalte. In this early lithograph of the college campus, the Oggel house is at the lower left, the Grammar School immediately behind it, the Laboratory farther up the hill, and the Chapel and Gymnasium and Van Vleck Hall in the upper right section.

From Campus Alive: A Walking Tour of Hope College.

"The Church and Dutch Reformed Colonization in Argentina: A Worst Case Scenario." In Documentatieblad voor de Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Zending en Overzeese Kerken 6, no. 2 (1999): 58-75. (Robert P. Swierenga)

For Food and Faith: Dutch Immigration to Western Michigan, 1846-1960, ed. Robert P. Swierenga. The Holland Museum Sesquicentennial Lectures. Holland, Michigan: Holland Museum and A. C. Van Raalte Institute, 2000. (Robert P. Swierenga)

"Interkerkelijk conflict in een geseculariseerde maatschappij." In Delen in eenheid. Omgaan met verschillen in de kerk, eds. A.T. van Deursen, et al., 45-52. Barneveld: GSEV/De Vuurbaak, 2000. (James C. Kennedy)

"The Moral State: How Much Do the Americans and the Dutch Differ?" In Regulating Morality: The United States and the Netherlands in Comparison, eds. Hans Krabbendam and Hans-Martien ten Napel, 9-22. Antwerp: Maklu, 2000. (James C. Kennedy)

"Reformed Church in America." In Dictionary of the Presbyterian and Reformed Tradition in America, gen. ed. D. G. Hart, consulting ed. Mark A. Noll, 207-208. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1999. (Elton J. Bruins)

Review of Faith and Family: Dutch Immigration and Settlement in the United States, 1820-1920. In AADAS News 1, no. 2 (summer 2000). (Elton J. Bruins)

"Stellingwerff's Amsterdamse Emigranten and Pella History." In Dutch Enterprise: Alive and Well in North America, eds. Larry J. Wagenaar and Robert P. Swierenga. Holland, Michigan: Joint Archives of Holland, Hope College, 1999. (Robert P. Swierenga)

"True Brothers: The Netherlandic Origins of the Christian Reformed Church in North America, 1857-1880." In Breaches and Bridges: Reformed Subcultures in the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States, eds. George Harinck and Hans Krabbendam, 61-83. VU Studies on Protestant History 4, gen. eds., J. de Bruijn and G. J. Schutte. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 2000. (Robert P. Swierenga)

In 1857 the CRC was no more or less Afscheiding in membership than was the RCA. And over time, the number of Hervormden increased in both churches until they became the majority. Despite the similarities in religious background, the rival bodies did have differing social and geographical bases. The CRC increasingly reflected the orthodox mentality of the northern Netherlands and the piety of northern Zeeland, while the RCA bore the more congenial marks of the eastern and central heartland.

These differences may explain why members of the midwestern RCA were more willing to accommodate themselves theologically, ecclesiastically, and culturally to their new environment, whereas the CRC continued to value cultural isolation and to look to the mother country for leadership and direction. The RCA members acted as immigrants and CRC members acted as colonists.

From "True Brothers: The Netherlandic Origins of the Christian Reformed Church in North America, 1857-1880" by Robert P. Swierenga.